The Evolution of Third Party Payment Providers

This report from SWIFT looks at the evolution of third party payment providers and cryptocurrencies under the European Union's (EU) upcoming second Payment Services Directive (PSD2) and fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive (AMLD4). 

The growth of e-commerce and online transactions in the Asian market has led to an increase of new payment solutions. Competition now also comes from non-financial institutions that offer third-party payment services. 


  • Introductions
  • State of the art
  • Research objectives
  • Methodology
  • Third party payment service providers under the EU's legal framework
  • Cryptocurrencies and service providers
  • Conclusions
  • Policy recommendations

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